GLOSSARY
Alternate
Starter
Alternates are called when the first
five starting pitchers are not in condition to start a game, or
when the other relievers aren't in condition to play, or when the
game is lopsided enough that you could send in your grandmother
and it wouldn't affect the outcome of the game. This is not a slight
to your grandmother. I hear she has a mean knuckleball.
At Bat (AB)
An At Bat is credited to the batter
for any plate appearance other than a walk,
hit batsmen, or sacrifice hit.
Caught Stealing Percent (CS%)
The percent of opposing basestealers thrown out by a catcher. A higher number indicates a better defensive catcher.
Batting
Average (AVG)
This is the percentage of hits per
at bat for a player. This does not include sacrifice hits or walks,
as they are not counted into at bats.
Blown Save
(BS)
A Blown Save is assigned to a pitcher
whenever he enters the game in a Save
Opportunity and fails to hold the lead.
Buy Out
When you buy out a player's contract,
you pay them all or part of the rest of their salary in a lump sum
and then release them. In real baseball, each player's contract
buyout clause is individually negotiated as part of their contract.
Some players must be paid the full salary in their contract, others
only a token amount. To simulate this in Baseball Mogul, you must
pay the player 50% of the salary remaining on their contract when
you choose to release them.
Chance
A chance is a fielding term used
to define a fielder's opportunity at a successful fielding play.
It is defined as either a putout, assist or error.
Closer
The 'closer' usually pitches the
last inning of a game in which his team has the lead. He earns the
most saves on the team, and needs to be the most reliable reliever.
Complete
Game
A complete game is awarded when the
starting pitcher pitches an entire game.
Caught Stealing Percent
The proportion of opposing base runners that this catcher threw out while attempting to steal. It calculated as (Runners Thrown Out / (Runners Thrown Out + Stolen Bases Allowed)).
Decision
The awarding of either a Win or Loss
to a pitcher. Thus, a pitcher with 7 wins and 4 losses has 11 'decisions'.
Defensive
Efficiency
This stat is only meaningful for
an entire team (not a single player). It represents the number of
times that the ball was hit into fair territory while the team was
on defense, and it was turned into an out. This is calculated by
dividing the number of fielding outs (all outs, minus strikeouts)
by all balls put into play (fielding outs, plus hits and errors, minus home runs).
Designated Hitter
The Designated Hitter, or 'DH', is a player in a team's lineup that has a turn atbat but does not have to play the field. In Baseball Mogul, this player automatically bats for the pitcher. The Designater Hitter was added in the American League in 1973. In games during or after the 1973 season, Baseball Mogul will use the DH for all games taking place in American League stadiums (unless you change this setting in the League Editor).
Difficulty Level
Baseball Mogul has four different levels of play: "Fan" (Easy); "Coach" (Moderate); "Manager" (Difficulty); and "Mogul" (Very Difficult). The level of play chosen affects the intelligence of computer opponents and the financial resources at your disposal to build a winning team.
Earned
Run Average
The number of earned runs allowed by the pitcher for each nine innings that they've pitched:
ERA = 
Earned Runs Allowed
(Innings Pitched / 9)

Endurance
One of the ratings used to define
a pitcher's talents. It indicates the number of batters the pitcher
can face in a game before suffering significant effects of fatigue.
Pitchers in your starting rotation should have a decent rating in
this area. The higher the rating, the more innings they will pitch
in each game. Pitchers with an 'F' or 'D' for endurance are habituated
to facing a smaller number of batters per game, but can be used
more often during the season (out of the bullpen).
Fielding
Percentage (Pct.)
This represents the percentage of
times the player has handled the ball without causing an error.
This is defined as the total number of chances without errors, divided by all chances.
 Mathematical Definition: (ChancesErrors)/Chances
Fielding Runs
Created by Pete Palmer and John Thorn, this is an estimate of the number of runs a player has prevented with his defensive play. Roughly 1/5 of a run is awarded for each "play" (such as an assist or putout), with adjustments made for first basemen and outfielders. This stat is not adjusted for park factors or team pitching. Nevertheless, it can be a decent firstorder approximation of defensive contribution.
Fielding Runs Above Average (FRAA)
The number of fielding runs created by this player that are above the league average for the given time period (such as a season or career). A negative value indicates performance below the league average.
Franchise
Value
The value of a franchise is affected
by a number of factors such as the attractiveness of it's stadium,
the strength of it's farm system and the talent that is has signed
to contracts. However, the most important factor determining a franchise's
value is the fan base in the city where it plays. The size, loyalty
and income of this fan base are the most important keys. Additionally,
a team's value is lowered if it has to share a geographic region
with another baseball team. (The franchise value listed on the Finances Screen
does not include the team's accumulated cash).
Free Agent
Free Agents are players who for whatever
reason have been released from their contracts with other teams,
or have completed contracts and are looking for new positions on
any team.
To bring a free agent into your team, you have sign him to the contract
proposed by the player and his agent. Free agents that are not signed
for a period of time will tend to lower their contract demands.
So, check back with players you are interested in.
Free Agent Period
Players in the last year of their contract become eligible for Free Agency seven days after the end of the World Series. If you have not signed your players to contract extensions by this date, they will be released into the Free Agent Pool.
The Free Agent Period also marks the end of the ban on trading that begins at the July 31st Trading Deadline.
Game Score
An pitching statistic developed by Bill James that measures how dominant a pitcher was in a single game. Virtually all Game Scores fall between 0 and 100, with the average near 50 (depending on playing era). To calculate Game Score:
 Start with 50 points.
 Add 1 point for each out recorded (i.e. 3 points per inning pitched).
 Add 2 points for each inning completed after the 4th.
 Add 1 point for each strikeout.
 Subtract 2 points for each hit allowed.
 Subtract 4 points for each earned run allowed.
 Subtract 2 points for each unearned run allowed.
 Subtract 1 point for each walk.
Games Back
(GB)
Abbreviated 'GB', this shows how
many 'Games' behind the division leader a team is. This indicates
the number of games that the team needed to have won instead of
lost in order to be tied with the division leader.
 Mathematical Definition: [(Leader
Wins  Team Wins) + (Team Losses  Team Losses)] / 2
Winning one game will bring a
team one "half game" closer to the division lead.
Losing one game will drop that team one "half game"
in the standings. Winning a game on the same day that the division
leader loses (such as by defeating that team directly) will
move a team one full game closer to the lead.
Hitter's Count
A count that favors the hitter, such as "30" or "31". As the pitcher needs to throw a strike to avoid walking the batter, it's likely the batter will get a good pitch to hit. Some batters with "sit on" the fastball in such counts, hoping to successfully prepare for the right pitch in a certain location.
Home Run (HR)
A home run is scored when the batter
is able to score a run on his own hit, without any intervening errors.
Most often, this occurs when the ball leaves the field of play,
in the air, in fair territory. An 'Inside The Park Home Run' is
a home run where the ball does not leave the field of play.
Innings
Pitched (IP)
Innings Pitched is the number of
innings a pitcher plays in a game. Because there are three outs
in an innings, innings are divided into thirds. A pitcher who pitches
just one out (one third of an inning) is described as having pitched
"0.1" innings. In the Box
Score, IP refers to the
innings pitched in that one game. In the Pitching
Dialog, the IP column shows
inning totals for an entire season or career.
Install Directory
The directory (also called folder)
on your computer where Baseball Mogul is installed. This is also
where files output by Baseball Mogul will end up.
The default for this directory is
C:/Program
Files/Sports Mogul/Baseball 2008.
Long
Reliever
The Long Reliever pitches long stretches
of innings, such as when a starting pitcher has a bad day and is
removed early.
Loss
The 'Loss' for each game is awarded
to the pitcher that was in the game when his team last surrendered
the lead. This pitcher is referred to as the game's "losing
pitcher".
Losses (L)
The Losses column on the Standings
Screen shows the number
of games lost this season by the specified team.
Middle
Reliever
The Middle Reliever pitches in middle
inning situations when the game may not be on the line. This is
a good role for a pitcher with mediocre Endurance
(e.g. 'C' or 'D').
On
Base Percentage (OBP)
The number of times an individual
reached base safely divided by the total number of plate appearances.
 Mathematical Definition: (Walks+Hits)
/ Plate Apperances
On Deck
Circle
Being in the on deck circle means
that you're next up to bat. The "on deck hitter" is the
batter due up after the current batter.
OOBP
The OOBP, or "Opponent On Base
Percentage", is the on
base percentage of all batters who faced the pitcher (or pitching
staff) specified.
Opponent Batting
Average (OBA)
The batting average of all batters
who faced the pitcher (or pitching staff) specified.
Opponent Slugging
Average (OSA)
The
slugging percentage
of all batters who faced the pitcher (or pitching staff) specified.
Owner
Dividends
Each year, every team must pay the
team's owner a share of the team's revenue. These dividends equal
roughly 10% of the team's franchise
value. To keep cash flow
smooth, these payments are spread out over all the season's games.
The amount paid at each game is shown on the Expenses
Dialog.
Pct.
"Pct" is an abbreviation
for Percentage. This is usually used to refer to a team's or pitcher's
Winning
Percentage.
Platoon Advantage
Position
A player's listed Position defines
the defensive role the player is most suited to play. The following
abbreviations are used in Baseball Mogul:
 P
= Pitcher
 C
= Catcher
 1B
= First Base
 2B
= Second Base
 3B
= Third Base
 SS
= Short Stop
 IF
= "Infield" (competent at any infield position except
first base)
 LF
= Left Field
 CF
= Center Field
 RF
= Right Field
 OF
= "Outfield" (competent at any outfield position)
Production (PRO)
A batter's Slugging
Percentage plus his On
Base Average. This is a good indicator of a batter's overall
productivity.
Put Out
A fielder scores a put out when he
tags or forces out a base runner or catches a ball on the fly for
an out. A catcher also scores an out when the other team's batter
strikes out.
Quality
Start
A Quality Start is a game in which
the starter pitches 6 or more innings and allows 3 or fewer earned
runs.
Quality Start
Percentage
This stat is only used for entire
teams. It indicates the percnetage of all the team's games that
resulted in a Quality Start for that team's starting pitcher.
Range
Factor
A player's range factor (abbreviated
'RF' on the Scouting Report)
indicates his ability to get to balls put in play by the opposition.
It equals the player's total chances divided by games started at that position. Combined with
Fielding Percentage,
this statistic provides a good picture a player's fielding ability.
Sacrifice
Hit
A sacrifice hit (abbreviated 'Sac'
on the Scouting Report)
is awarded whenever a player successfully bunts to advance a runner
even though the batter himself is thrown out at first. A sacrifice
hit counts as a plate appearance, but not as an At Bat.
Save
Opportunity
A Save Opportunity is when a pitcher
enters the game with his team ahead and the tying run in the on
deck circle, at the plate, or on base.
Save (SV)
A save is earned if a pitcher enters
the game in a save opportunity and finishes the game without his
team losing the lead. A save is also awarded to a pitcher who pitches
the final three innings of a game without relinquishing the lead,
whether or not there was an official save opportunity.
Save Percentage
(SV%)
The Save Percentage is total number
of save opportunities converted to saves.
Short
Reliever
The Short Reliever pitches in late
inning opportunities that are not appropriate for the Closer or
the Setup man. "Short Reliever" is also a generic term
used to describe pitchers that face a small number of batters per
apperance. These pitchers are usually identified with an 'F' endurance
rating.
Shutout
A Shutout is awarded when a pitcher
throws a Complete Game
and doesn't allowed any runs to score. When a pitcher throws
a Shutout, he is also credited with a Complete Game and a Win.
Slugging
Percentage (SLG)
The Slugging Percentage indicates
the power and effectiveness of the hitter. Mathematically, it's
the number of bases divided by the number of times the player was
at bat.
 Example: A player bats three times,
and gets a triple, a double and a strike out. His slugging average
would be: (3+2+0)/3 = 1.666.
Mathematical Definition: (Total Bases
/ At Bats)
Starting
Pitcher
The starting pitchers for any game
are the two pitchers that started the game for each team. Starting
pitchers are generally the best five pitchers on each team. They'll
begin and pitch for the majority of the games you play. The starters
selected will rotate from game to game depending on their condition.
On an average rotation, the fifth starter will get about two thirds
as much work as any of the first four.
Stolen Base Allowed (SBA)
A stat credited to a catcher when an opposing runner steals a base. Catchers with higher Arm Ratings allow fewer stolen bases while they are in the field.
Strikeout
(K)
A strikeout is awarded when the pitcher
throws three strikes without the batter putting the ball in play,
or walking
the batter. Sometimes, such as in the Box
Score, it's called a K
(as in striKeout).
Setup
The Setup Man comes in to pitch in
close games before the 9th inning (i.e. before the closer tries
to save the game). He should be your team's 2nd best short reliever.
Stopper
Slang for the Ace, or #1 pitcher in your Pitching Rotation. This term refers to the responsibility this pitcher takes for stopping losing streaks.
Trading Deadline
By default, it is illegal to trade players after July 31st in Baseball Mogul. The ban on trading ends at the Free Agency Deadline.
Walk (BB)
A walk (or "base on balls",
abbreviated 'BB') occurs when a pitcher throws four balls in one
at bat. The batter is awarded a free pass to first base with runners
advancing only if they are forced. A walk does not count as an at
bat but it does count as a plate appearance.
WHIP
The abbreviation for 'Walks plus Hits per Inning Pitched'. This stat is displayed for pitchers and is sometimes called 'Baserunners per Inning Pitched'. It equals the sum of the Walks and Hits allowed by the pitcher, divided by his Innings Pitched.
Win
The 'Win' for each game is awarded
to the pitcher that was in the game when his team last gained the
lead. This pitcher is referred to as the game's "winning pitcher".
The one exception to this rule is that a starting
pitcher must complete the first five innings in order to earn
the win. If he doesn't, the win is awarded to the winning team's
pitcher whose performance most helped his team win (which may or
may not be the game's starting pitcher).
Wins (W)
The Wins column on the Standings
Screen shows the number
of games won this season by the specified team.
Winning
Percentage (Pct.)
This is the percentage of games that
a team has won in the current season. It's displayed in decimal
form but if you're unfamiliar with this notation, you can think
of it as a percent. For example, a .600 Winning Percentage means
the team has won 60.0% of the games it has played.
For a single pitcher, 'Winning Percentage'
refers to the player's wins as a percentage of his total number
of decisions.
