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Did You Know?
Technical Support



Alternate Starter

Alternates are called when the first five starting pitchers are not in condition to start a game, or when the other relievers aren't in condition to play, or when the game is lopsided enough that you could send in your grandmother and it wouldn't affect the outcome of the game. This is not a slight to your grandmother. I hear she has a mean knuckleball.

At Bat (AB)

An At Bat is credited to the batter for any plate appearance other than a walk, hit batsmen, or sacrifice hit.

Caught Stealing Percent (CS%)

The percent of opposing base-stealers thrown out by a catcher. A higher number indicates a better defensive catcher.

Batting Average (AVG)

This is the percentage of hits per at bat for a player. This does not include sacrifice hits or walks, as they are not counted into at bats.

Blown Save (BS)

A Blown Save is assigned to a pitcher whenever he enters the game in a Save Opportunity and fails to hold the lead.

Buy Out

When you buy out a player's contract, you pay them all or part of the rest of their salary in a lump sum and then release them. In real baseball, each player's contract buyout clause is individually negotiated as part of their contract. Some players must be paid the full salary in their contract, others only a token amount. To simulate this in Baseball Mogul, you must pay the player 50% of the salary remaining on their contract when you choose to release them.


A chance is a fielding term used to define a fielder's opportunity at a successful fielding play. It is defined as either a putout, assist or error.


The 'closer' usually pitches the last inning of a game in which his team has the lead. He earns the most saves on the team, and needs to be the most reliable reliever.

Complete Game

A complete game is awarded when the starting pitcher pitches an entire game.

Caught Stealing Percent

The proportion of opposing base runners that this catcher threw out while attempting to steal. It calculated as (Runners Thrown Out / (Runners Thrown Out + Stolen Bases Allowed)).


The awarding of either a Win or Loss to a pitcher. Thus, a pitcher with 7 wins and 4 losses has 11 'decisions'.

Defensive Efficiency

This stat is only meaningful for an entire team (not a single player). It represents the number of times that the ball was hit into fair territory while the team was on defense, and it was turned into an out. This is calculated by dividing the number of fielding outs (all outs, minus strikeouts) by all balls put into play (fielding outs, plus hits and errors, minus home runs).

Designated Hitter

The Designated Hitter, or 'DH', is a player in a team's lineup that has a turn at-bat but does not have to play the field. In Baseball Mogul, this player automatically bats for the pitcher. The Designater Hitter was added in the American League in 1973. In games during or after the 1973 season, Baseball Mogul will use the DH for all games taking place in American League stadiums (unless you change this setting in the League Editor).

Difficulty Level

Baseball Mogul has four different levels of play: "Fan" (Easy); "Coach" (Moderate); "Manager" (Difficulty); and "Mogul" (Very Difficult). The level of play chosen affects the intelligence of computer opponents and the financial resources at your disposal to build a winning team.

Earned Run Average

The number of earned runs allowed by the pitcher for each nine innings that they've pitched:

Earned Runs Allowed
(Innings Pitched / 9)


One of the ratings used to define a pitcher's talents. It indicates the number of batters the pitcher can face in a game before suffering significant effects of fatigue. Pitchers in your starting rotation should have a decent rating in this area. The higher the rating, the more innings they will pitch in each game. Pitchers with an 'F' or 'D' for endurance are habituated to facing a smaller number of batters per game, but can be used more often during the season (out of the bullpen).

Fielding Percentage (Pct.)

This represents the percentage of times the player has handled the ball without causing an error. This is defined as the total number of chances without errors, divided by all chances.

Mathematical Definition: (Chances-Errors)/Chances

Fielding Runs

Created by Pete Palmer and John Thorn, this is an estimate of the number of runs a player has prevented with his defensive play. Roughly 1/5 of a run is awarded for each "play" (such as an assist or putout), with adjustments made for first basemen and outfielders. This stat is not adjusted for park factors or team pitching. Nevertheless, it can be a decent first-order approximation of defensive contribution.

Fielding Runs Above Average (FRAA)

The number of fielding runs created by this player that are above the league average for the given time period (such as a season or career). A negative value indicates performance below the league average.

Franchise Value

The value of a franchise is affected by a number of factors such as the attractiveness of it's stadium, the strength of it's farm system and the talent that is has signed to contracts. However, the most important factor determining a franchise's value is the fan base in the city where it plays. The size, loyalty and income of this fan base are the most important keys. Additionally, a team's value is lowered if it has to share a geographic region with another baseball team. (The franchise value listed on the Finances Screen does not include the team's accumulated cash).

Free Agent

Free Agents are players who for whatever reason have been released from their contracts with other teams, or have completed contracts and are looking for new positions on any team.

To bring a free agent into your team, you have sign him to the contract proposed by the player and his agent. Free agents that are not signed for a period of time will tend to lower their contract demands. So, check back with players you are interested in.

Free Agent Period

Players in the last year of their contract become eligible for Free Agency seven days after the end of the World Series. If you have not signed your players to contract extensions by this date, they will be released into the Free Agent Pool.

The Free Agent Period also marks the end of the ban on trading that begins at the July 31st Trading Deadline.

Game Score

An pitching statistic developed by Bill James that measures how dominant a pitcher was in a single game. Virtually all Game Scores fall between 0 and 100, with the average near 50 (depending on playing era). To calculate Game Score:

  1. Start with 50 points.
  2. Add 1 point for each out recorded (i.e. 3 points per inning pitched).
  3. Add 2 points for each inning completed after the 4th.
  4. Add 1 point for each strikeout.
  5. Subtract 2 points for each hit allowed.
  6. Subtract 4 points for each earned run allowed.
  7. Subtract 2 points for each unearned run allowed.
  8. Subtract 1 point for each walk.

Games Back (GB)

Abbreviated 'GB', this shows how many 'Games' behind the division leader a team is. This indicates the number of games that the team needed to have won instead of lost in order to be tied with the division leader.

Mathematical Definition: [(Leader Wins - Team Wins) + (Team Losses - Team Losses)] / 2

Winning one game will bring a team one "half game" closer to the division lead. Losing one game will drop that team one "half game" in the standings. Winning a game on the same day that the division leader loses (such as by defeating that team directly) will move a team one full game closer to the lead.

Hitter's Count

A count that favors the hitter, such as "3-0" or "3-1". As the pitcher needs to throw a strike to avoid walking the batter, it's likely the batter will get a good pitch to hit. Some batters with "sit on" the fastball in such counts, hoping to successfully prepare for the right pitch in a certain location.

Home Run (HR)

A home run is scored when the batter is able to score a run on his own hit, without any intervening errors. Most often, this occurs when the ball leaves the field of play, in the air, in fair territory. An 'Inside The Park Home Run' is a home run where the ball does not leave the field of play.

Innings Pitched (IP)

Innings Pitched is the number of innings a pitcher plays in a game. Because there are three outs in an innings, innings are divided into thirds. A pitcher who pitches just one out (one third of an inning) is described as having pitched "0.1" innings. In the Box Score, IP refers to the innings pitched in that one game. In the Pitching Dialog, the IP column shows inning totals for an entire season or career.

Install Directory

The directory (also called folder) on your computer where Baseball Mogul is installed. This is also where files output by Baseball Mogul will end up.

The default for this directory is C:/Program Files/Sports Mogul/Baseball 2008.

Long Reliever

The Long Reliever pitches long stretches of innings, such as when a starting pitcher has a bad day and is removed early.


The 'Loss' for each game is awarded to the pitcher that was in the game when his team last surrendered the lead. This pitcher is referred to as the game's "losing pitcher".

Losses (L)

The Losses column on the Standings Screen shows the number of games lost this season by the specified team.

Middle Reliever

The Middle Reliever pitches in middle inning situations when the game may not be on the line. This is a good role for a pitcher with mediocre Endurance (e.g. 'C' or 'D').

On Base Percentage (OBP)

The number of times an individual reached base safely divided by the total number of plate appearances.

Mathematical Definition: (Walks+Hits) / Plate Apperances

On Deck Circle

Being in the on deck circle means that you're next up to bat. The "on deck hitter" is the batter due up after the current batter.


The OOBP, or "Opponent On Base Percentage", is the on base percentage of all batters who faced the pitcher (or pitching staff) specified.

Opponent Batting Average (OBA)

The batting average of all batters who faced the pitcher (or pitching staff) specified.

Opponent Slugging Average (OSA)

The slugging percentage of all batters who faced the pitcher (or pitching staff) specified.

Owner Dividends

Each year, every team must pay the team's owner a share of the team's revenue. These dividends equal roughly 10% of the team's franchise value. To keep cash flow smooth, these payments are spread out over all the season's games. The amount paid at each game is shown on the Expenses Dialog.


"Pct" is an abbreviation for Percentage. This is usually used to refer to a team's or pitcher's Winning Percentage.

Platoon Advantage



A player's listed Position defines the defensive role the player is most suited to play. The following abbreviations are used in Baseball Mogul:

  • P = Pitcher
  • C = Catcher
  • 1B = First Base
  • 2B = Second Base
  • 3B = Third Base
  • SS = Short Stop
  • IF = "Infield" (competent at any infield position except first base)
  • LF = Left Field
  • CF = Center Field
  • RF = Right Field
  • OF = "Outfield" (competent at any outfield position)

Production (PRO)

A batter's Slugging Percentage plus his On Base Average. This is a good indicator of a batter's overall productivity.

Put Out

A fielder scores a put out when he tags or forces out a base runner or catches a ball on the fly for an out. A catcher also scores an out when the other team's batter strikes out.

Quality Start

A Quality Start is a game in which the starter pitches 6 or more innings and allows 3 or fewer earned runs.

Quality Start Percentage

This stat is only used for entire teams. It indicates the percnetage of all the team's games that resulted in a Quality Start for that team's starting pitcher.

Range Factor

A player's range factor (abbreviated 'RF' on the Scouting Report) indicates his ability to get to balls put in play by the opposition. It equals the player's total chances divided by games started at that position. Combined with Fielding Percentage, this statistic provides a good picture a player's fielding ability.

Sacrifice Hit

A sacrifice hit (abbreviated 'Sac' on the Scouting Report) is awarded whenever a player successfully bunts to advance a runner even though the batter himself is thrown out at first. A sacrifice hit counts as a plate appearance, but not as an At Bat.

Save Opportunity

A Save Opportunity is when a pitcher enters the game with his team ahead and the tying run in the on deck circle, at the plate, or on base.

Save (SV)

A save is earned if a pitcher enters the game in a save opportunity and finishes the game without his team losing the lead. A save is also awarded to a pitcher who pitches the final three innings of a game without relinquishing the lead, whether or not there was an official save opportunity.

Save Percentage (SV%)

The Save Percentage is total number of save opportunities converted to saves.

Short Reliever

The Short Reliever pitches in late inning opportunities that are not appropriate for the Closer or the Setup man. "Short Reliever" is also a generic term used to describe pitchers that face a small number of batters per apperance. These pitchers are usually identified with an 'F' endurance rating.


A Shutout is awarded when a pitcher throws a Complete Game and doesn't allowed any runs to score. When a pitcher throws a Shutout, he is also credited with a Complete Game and a Win.

Slugging Percentage (SLG)

The Slugging Percentage indicates the power and effectiveness of the hitter. Mathematically, it's the number of bases divided by the number of times the player was at bat.

Example: A player bats three times, and gets a triple, a double and a strike out. His slugging average would be: (3+2+0)/3 = 1.666.

Mathematical Definition: (Total Bases / At Bats)

Starting Pitcher

The starting pitchers for any game are the two pitchers that started the game for each team. Starting pitchers are generally the best five pitchers on each team. They'll begin and pitch for the majority of the games you play. The starters selected will rotate from game to game depending on their condition. On an average rotation, the fifth starter will get about two thirds as much work as any of the first four.

Stolen Base Allowed (SBA)

A stat credited to a catcher when an opposing runner steals a base. Catchers with higher Arm Ratings allow fewer stolen bases while they are in the field.

Strikeout (K)

A strikeout is awarded when the pitcher throws three strikes without the batter putting the ball in play, or walking the batter. Sometimes, such as in the Box Score, it's called a K (as in striKeout).


The Setup Man comes in to pitch in close games before the 9th inning (i.e. before the closer tries to save the game). He should be your team's 2nd best short reliever.


Slang for the Ace, or #1 pitcher in your Pitching Rotation. This term refers to the responsibility this pitcher takes for stopping losing streaks.

Trading Deadline

By default, it is illegal to trade players after July 31st in Baseball Mogul. The ban on trading ends at the Free Agency Deadline.

Walk (BB)

A walk (or "base on balls", abbreviated 'BB') occurs when a pitcher throws four balls in one at bat. The batter is awarded a free pass to first base with runners advancing only if they are forced. A walk does not count as an at bat but it does count as a plate appearance.


The abbreviation for 'Walks plus Hits per Inning Pitched'. This stat is displayed for pitchers and is sometimes called 'Baserunners per Inning Pitched'. It equals the sum of the Walks and Hits allowed by the pitcher, divided by his Innings Pitched.


The 'Win' for each game is awarded to the pitcher that was in the game when his team last gained the lead. This pitcher is referred to as the game's "winning pitcher". The one exception to this rule is that a starting pitcher must complete the first five innings in order to earn the win. If he doesn't, the win is awarded to the winning team's pitcher whose performance most helped his team win (which may or may not be the game's starting pitcher).

Wins (W)

The Wins column on the Standings Screen shows the number of games won this season by the specified team.

Winning Percentage (Pct.)

This is the percentage of games that a team has won in the current season. It's displayed in decimal form but if you're unfamiliar with this notation, you can think of it as a percent. For example, a .600 Winning Percentage means the team has won 60.0% of the games it has played.

For a single pitcher, 'Winning Percentage' refers to the player's wins as a percentage of his total number of decisions.

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